Có thể nói cấu trúc bài tập câu trực tiếp, gián tiếp luôn xuất hiện nhiều trong các bài thi từ cấp 2 cho đến thi toeic, ielts. Để nắm rõ ý nghĩa, khái niệm cũng như cấu trúc câu phù hợp, bài viết sau đây Verbalearn sẽ tổng hợp thông tin về câu trực tiếp, gián tiếp đầy đủ nhất.
Khái niệm câu trực tiếp gián tiếp
Lời nói trực tiếp (hay còn gọi là direct speech): là dạng câu đưa ra lời trích dẫn trực tiếp các ngôn từ trong câu nói của người nào đó. Cách nhận dạng là câu nói được đặt trong dấu ngoặc kép.
E.g: Mary said, “I am too short to reach this shelf.”
(Mary nói, tôi quá ngắn để đến được kệ này.)
Trong đó câu nói trực tiếp (hay trực tiếp) đã được để trong dấu ngoặc kép là “I am too short to reach this shelf.”
Lời nói gián tiếp (indirect speech): hay còn gọi là câu tường thuật nhằm thể hiện lại câu nói của môt người khác dưới biểu đạt ngôn ngữ của mình. Đặc biệt trong câu gián tiếp không xuất hiên dấu ngoặc kép như ở câu trực tiếp.
John said, “My father exercises at 5.am daily.” (Câu trực tiếp)
John said his father did exercise at 5.am daily.” (Câu gián tiếp)
Cách chuyển từ câu trực tiếp sang câu gián tiếp
Về phương pháp làm dạng này khá dễ dàng nhưng cần phải chú ý vào những đặc điểm quan trọng.
Thứ nhất là ở câu gián tiếp không có dấu ngoặc kép
Chủ ngữ nếu là ngôi thứ nhất thì phải được hạ xuống ngôi thứ 3
Động từ cũng xuống một cấp quá khứ
Trong trường hợp thì được sử dụng trong câu trực tiếp là thì hiện tại thì khi chuyển sang câu gián tiếp ta giữ nguyên thì động từ, đại từ chỉ định và cả các trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn hoặc thời gian.
She says: “I am going to Paris next year.”
(Cô ấy nói: tôi sẽ đến Paris vào năm tới.)
She says she is going to Paris next year.
(Cô ấy nói rằng cô ấy sẽ đến Paris vào năm tới.)
Trong trường hợp thì được sử dụng trong câu trực tiếp là quá khứ thì khi chuyển sang câu gián tiếp ta cần phải lùi động từ chính về một bậc, kèm theo những sự thay đổi phù hợp về trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn hay thời gian.
▬ Bảng biến đổi thì và các động từ phù hợp
Câu trực tiếp
Câu gián tiếp
Present simple (Thì hiện tại đơn)
Persent perfect continuous
Past perfect continuous
Past perfect continuous
Must/ have to
▬ Bảng biến đổi các đại từ và những từ hạn định phù hợp
Câu trực tiếp
Câu gián tiếp
Đại từ sở hữu
Đại từ sở hữu
Đại từ chỉ định
▬ Bảng biến đổi các trạng ngữ chỉ nơi chốn và thời gian
Câu trực tiếp
Câu gián tiếp
Then/ at that moment
That day/ that night
the next day
The following week
The previous day
The day before
The week before
Một số điểm lưu ý cần ghi nhớ: Trong quá trình biến đổi từ câu trực tiếp sang câu gián tiếp thì động từ chính (gần chủ ngữ nhất) sẽ bị hạ xuống một cột. Điều này được diễn giải như sau:
→ Động từ ở cột 1 thì hạ xuống thành cột 2
(chỉ cần thêm ed chứ không phải là đổi sang thành dạng động từ bất quy tắc)
→ Động từ ở cột 2 thì hạ xuống thành cột 3
→ Động từ cột 3 thì chỉ cần thêm had ở phía trước
Ngoài ra, có một vài trường hợp thì động từ chính không cần phải hạ xuống bậc:
Nói về chân lý, một sự thật hiển nhiên
Khi câu trực tiếp đã ở dạng quá khứ hoàn thành
Trong câu có năm xác định cụ thể
Những câu có kèm cấu trúc như: if only, as though, as if, would rather, wish, it’s high time, if loại 2 hoặc 3.
Các dạng câu tường thuật trong tiếng anh
1. Câu tường thuật ở dang câu kể
Cấu trúc: S + say(s)/ said + (that) + S + V
Nếu động từ câu trực tiếp là “says/say to + O” → tells/tell + O
Nếu động từ câu trực tiếp là “said to + O” → told + O
E.g: Jane said to me “I have a lot of work to do today.”
Jane told me she had a lot of work that day.
2. Câu tường thuật khi ở dạng là câu hỏi
Câu hỏi trả lời Yes or No ( yes, no questions)
Cấu trúc: S + asked/ wanted to know/ wondered + if/whether + S + V
E.g: “Are you neighbor?” she asked
→ She asked if/ whether I was her neighbor.
3. Câu hỏi dùng từ hỏi trực tiếp
Cấu trúc: S + asked(+O)/ wanted to know / wondered + Wh-word + S + V.
Nếu động từ trong câu trực tiếp là “says/say to + O” → Asks / Ask + O
Nếu động từ trong câu trực tiếp là “said to + O” → Asked + O
E.g: “Where are you?” said the boss
→ The boss asked me where I was.
4. Câu tường thuật khi xuất hiện dạng yêu cầu, mệnh lệnh
Cấu trúc: Ở thể khẳng định: S + told + O + to-infinitive.
E.g: “Please turn off the air conditioner in this room.” Mary said to her colleague.
→ Mary told her colleague to turn off the air conditioner in that room.
Cấu trúc: Ở thể phủ định: S + told + O + not to-infinitive
E.g: “Don’t drive my car without permission.” Lisa said to her brother.
→ Lisa told her brother not to drive her car without permission.
Một số dạng câu gián tiếp đặc biệt trong tiếng anh
Các từ đứng đầu câu hỏi trong câu trực tiếp như “Shall/ would” dùng để diễn tả sự đề nghị, mời gọi một ai đó làm gì.
E.g: Jenny asked: “Shall I cook you a meal?”
→ Jenny offered to cool me a meal.
E.g: Jenny asked: “Shall we work together?”
→ Jenny suggested working together.
Các từ đứng đầu câu hỏi trong cuâ trực tiếp như: “Will, would, can, could” dùng để diễn tả, đưa ra những sự yêu cầu, mong muốn.
E.g: Jihyo asked : “Will you come to the party, please?”
→ Jihyo asked me to come to the party.
E.g: Tom asked Rose: “Can you make my birthday cake, Rose?”
→ Tom asked Rose to make his birthday cake.
Bài tập câu trực tiếp, gián tiếp
Dạng 1: Hoàn thành các câu còn trống
1. “Where is my fur coat?” Mike asked
Mike asked ………………………..
2. “Did you prepare the materials for the meeting tomorrow?” The boss asked us.
The boss asked us ………………….
3. “When are you going to the airport to New York?” Irene asked me
Irene asked me…………………
4. “What is he going to do?” Jack asked.
Jack wanted to know ………………..
5. “Who composed the song?” My mother asked.
My mother wanted to know …………………
6. “Can you show me the way to the museum?” Rich asked us
Rich asked us ………………………………….
7. “Why are everyone late for today?” the manager asked me
The manager asked me …………………..
8. “Do not open my laptop without consent.” Sally said to him
Sally told him …………………………
9. “Please give me some sugar because my coffee is too bitter.” The customer said to the waiter.
The customer told the waiter ………………….
10. “Have you lived in London before?” the interviewer asked me.
The interviewer asked me …………..
11. “Who repaired the roof yesterday?” my father asked
My father wanted to know………………
12. “What did the girl look like yesterday?” David asked
David asked …………………..
13. “Please shut up” The supervisor said to him
The supervisor told him …………..
14. “Can I have some takeaway cake?” My friend asked
My friend asked ………………..
15. “Please do not sit in my chair because I have reserved it.” The customer said to me
The customer told me ……………….
16. “Why didn’t you show up at the party last night?” The boss asked him
The boss wanted to know ………………..
17. He said, “I don’t like spicy food, so exchange for another plate of food for me.”
He said ………………..
18. She said: “I love dancing so that’s why I often practices it at home.”
She said ………………..
19. Ben said: “I can eat two large pizzas at this meal.”
Ben said ………………………
20. Bobby asked the manager: “please help me turn off the lights when I’m about to appear on stage.”
Bobby asked the manager …………………
21. “If I were you, I would never forgive the person who betrayed me.” Jane told her colleague.
Jane told her colleague ……………….
22. Frank said: “My mother will hold my birthday party at a French restaurant.”
23. “Would you like some wine or not?” the waiter asked me
The waiter asked me …………………
24. Mark asked everyone: “Please enter the hall to prepare for the party to begin.”
Mark asked everyone ………………………..
25. Sara said, “I feel very tired tonight because I ate so much.”
Sara said ………………….
26. “Don’t touch anything in this room until I come back.” The director told me
The director told me …………………………
27. “Why are you all going to eat together today?” my colleague asked
My colleague asked ……………………
28. “I don’t like to eat candy because it contains so much sugar that makes me fat.” my sister said
My sister said ……………………..
29. “Please prepare some food because my friend is coming to my house to play.” Jack told his girlfriend.
Jack told his girlfriend ………………..
30. Lisa said: “I used to love a man, but he betrayed me and married another girl.”
Lisa said …………………………
31. “When are you going to start building this apartment?” my neighbor asked
My neighbor wanted to know ……………..
32. “Who broke the glass door yesterday?” my mother asked
My mother asked ………………..
33. Push said: “I have lived and worked in Bangkok for 5 years.”
34. “Shall I hold a bag for you?” He asked
He offered ……………..
35. “My boyfriend is a very hot-tempered person so sometimes he scolds me in front of people.” Rose said.
36. “Do you know why our boss moved to another facility to work?” May asked us
May asked us……………….
37. “Don’t bother me” John said to her
John told her …………………..
38. “I don’t want you to interact or take things from strangers.” Kimberly’s father said to her
Kimberly’s father told her ……………..
39. “Don’t move this sofa because it messes up.” My roommate told me
My roommate told me ………………….
40. “Please add some salt to the soup.” my mother said to me
My mother said …………………………..
1. Mike asked me where his fur coat was.
2. The boss asked us if we prepared the materials for the meeting the next day.
3. Irene asked me when I was going to the airport to New York.
4. Jack wanted to know what he was going to do.
5. My mother wanted to know who had composed the song.
6. Rich asked us if we could show him the way to the museum.
7. The manager asked me why everyone was late for that day.
8. Sally told him not to open her laptop without consent.
9. The customer told the waiter to give her some sugar because her coffee was too bitter.
10. The interviewer asked me if I had lived in london before.
11. My father wanted to know who had repaired the roof the day before.
12. David asked me what the girl looked like the day before.
13. The supervisor told him to shut up
14. My friend asked me if she could have some takeaway cake.
15. The customer told me not to sit her chair because she had reserved it.
16. The boss wanted to know why you hadn’t showed up at the party the night before.
17. He said that he didn’t like spicy food, so exchange for another plate of food for him.
18. She said that she loved dancing so that’s why she often practiced it at home.
19. Ben said that he could eat two large pizzas at that meal.
20. Bobby asked the manager to help him turn off the lights when he was about to appear on stage.
21. Jane told her colleague if she had been him, she would have never forgiven the person who had betrayed her.
22. Frank said that his mother would hold his birthday party at a French restaurant.
23. The waiter asked me if I would have liked some wine or not.
24. Mark asked everyone to enter the hall to prepare for the party to begin.
25. Sara said that she felt very tired that night because she had eaten so much.
26. The director told me not to touch anything in that room until he came back.
27. My colleague asked us why we were going to eat together that day.
28. My sister said that she didn’t like to eat candy because it contained so much sugar that made her fat.
29. Jack told his girlfriend to prepare some food because his friend was coming to his house to play.
30. Lisa said that she had used to love a man, but he had betrayed her and had married another girl.
31. My neighbor wanted to know when me was going to start building this apartment.
32. My mother asked me who had broken the glass door the day before.
33. Push said that he had lived and worked in Bangkok for 5 years.
34. He offered to hold a bag for me.
35. Rose said that her boyfriend was a very hot-tempered person so sometimes he scolded her in front of people.
36. May asked us if we knew why uor boss had moved to another facility to work.
37. John told her not to bother him.
38. Kimberly’s father told her that he didn’t want her to interact or took things from strangers.
39. My roommate told me not to move that sofa because it messed up.
40. My mother told me to add some salt to the soup.
Dạng 2: Trắc nghiệm câu trực tiếp gián tiếp
1. Jane asked me ______ going to settle down in Australia.
A. When am I
B. when was I
C. when I was
D. was when I
2. My mother said that ______ when she saw me getting married.
A. She feels happy
B. she felt happy
C. did she fell happy
D. she is felt happy
3. Kate asked me what type of instrument I used most often.
D. no article
4. John told me ______ the furniture in his closet until he came home
A. To touch
B. that touching
C. not to touch
D. to touching
5. Mary told me ______ her decorate the house because that day is her birthday.
A. If helping
B. not to help
C. whether to help
D. to help
6. He said that he met me ______.
A. The previous day
B. the day
C. the before day
D. the day
7. Jenny wants to know ______ come back to the office.
A. When will my boss
B. will when my boss
C. when my boss will
D. when my boss would
8. Lisa told her boyfriend ______ in her dining room.
A. To smoke
B. not to smoke
C. that smoking
9. Rose asked me ______ feel most interested in life.
A. What make me
B. if I make
C. what made me
D. what did make me
10. He told me ______ the bathroom because it was being repaired.
A. To use
B. not to use
C. to using
D. if using